Gender confirmation surgery (GCS), also known as sex reassignment surgery (SRS) or gender reassignment surgery, is a surgical procedure(s) by which a transgender or non-binary person’s physical appearance and functional abilities are changed to align with the gender they know themselves to be.

GCS can involve a variety of procedures, depending on the individual’s needs and goals. Some common procedures include:

  • Top surgery: This surgery can remove or augment breast tissue and reshape the chest to create a more masculine or feminine appearance.
  • Bottom surgery: This surgery can create genitalia that is more aligned with the individual’s gender identity. For transgender women, this may involve vaginoplasty or vulvoplasty. For transgender men, this may involve phalloplasty or metoidioplasty.
  • Facial feminization surgery: This surgery can reshape facial features to be more feminine or masculine.
  • Voice surgery: This surgery can help to raise or lower the pitch of the voice.

GCS is a complex and personal decision. There are many factors to consider, such as the individual’s individual needs, goals, and financial resources. If you are considering GCS, it is important to talk to a qualified surgeon to discuss your options and make sure that this is the right decision for you.

Gender confirmation surgery, also known as sex reassignment surgery or gender reassignment surgery, refers to a group of surgical procedures that aim to align an individual’s physical characteristics with their gender identity. It is a significant step in the transition process for individuals seeking to affirm their gender identity.

Gender confirmation surgery can involve various procedures depending on the desired outcome and the individual’s assigned sex at birth. Here are two common types of gender confirmation surgeries:

  1. Male-to-Female (MTF) Surgery: MTF gender confirmation surgery involves procedures that help transform the physical characteristics from male to female. This may include:
  • Vaginoplasty: This procedure involves the creation of a neovagina using the penile skin or other grafts. The neovagina allows for sexual intercourse and enhances the overall appearance of the genital area.
  • Breast Augmentation: Breast augmentation is the placement of breast implants to enhance the size and shape of the breasts, creating a more feminine chest contour.
  1. Female-to-Male (FTM) Surgery: FTM gender confirmation surgery involves procedures that help transform the physical characteristics from female to male. This may include:
  • Mastectomy: FTM individuals may undergo a mastectomy, also known as top surgery, which involves the removal of breast tissue to create a more masculine chest contour.
  • Phalloplasty or Metoidioplasty: These procedures involve the creation of a neophallus (new penis) using various techniques. Phalloplasty often uses tissue grafts, while metoidioplasty releases the clitoral ligament to enhance the visibility of the clitoris.

It’s important to note that gender confirmation surgery is a personal decision and not all transgender individuals pursue surgical options. The decision to undergo gender confirmation surgery is made after careful consideration, consultation with healthcare professionals, and understanding the potential risks and benefits associated with the procedures.

The specific procedures involved in gender confirmation surgery can vary based on individual goals, medical considerations, and the expertise of the surgical team. It is important for individuals considering gender confirmation surgery to consult with experienced healthcare professionals who specialize in transgender healthcare to receive personalized guidance and support throughout the process.

Here are some additional resources that you may find helpful:

  • The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) Standards of Care:
  • The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) website:
  • The International Foundation for Gender Education (IFGE) website: