Female-to-male (FtM) gender confirmation surgery, also known as sex reassignment surgery (SRS), involves procedures that transform the physical appearance and function of female sexual characteristics to resemble those societally associated with the male gender.

These procedures include:

  1. Top Surgery (Mastectomy): This procedure involves the removal of breast tissue to create a more traditionally masculine chest. The nipples and areolas are usually resized and repositioned during this procedure.
  2. Hysterectomy: This is the removal of the uterus. A Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy, the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, may be done at the same time.
  3. Phalloplasty: This surgical procedure involves the construction of a neopenis, often using skin from the forearm or thigh. This is a complex procedure and typically involves multiple stages, including the creation of the penis, the lengthening of the urethra to allow for urination through the penis, and the insertion of erectile prostheses to allow for erections.
  4. Metoidioplasty: This surgery takes advantage of clitoral growth caused by hormone therapy in FtM transition. The clitoris is released from its ligaments in order to increase its outward length. This procedure can include urethral lengthening to allow standing urination and may also involve a scrotoplasty, which is the creation of a scrotum, often including testicular implants.
  5. Scrotoplasty: This procedure involves the creation of a scrotum by using labial tissue, and often includes the insertion of testicular implants to mimic the appearance and feel of biological testes.

Each of these surgeries comes with its own potential risks and complications, and not all transgender men will want or be able to have all of these procedures. Furthermore, it’s important to remember that these surgeries are typically just one part of a person’s transition, which may also include elements like hormone replacement therapy, mental health support, and social transition.

Remember that this information is accurate as of my last training data up until September 2021, and the procedures might have been updated or changed since then. Always consult with healthcare professionals to get the most recent and relevant information.