Phalloplasty is a complex surgery with a number of potential risks and complications. Some of the most common risks include:

  • Infection: Infection is a risk with any surgery, but it is more common with phalloplasty. The risk of infection can be reduced by taking antibiotics before and after surgery.
  • Hematoma: A hematoma is a collection of blood under the skin. Hematomas can occur after any surgery, but they are more common with phalloplasty. Hematomas can be painful and can lead to infection.
  • Nerve damage: Nerve damage can occur during phalloplasty, and it can lead to numbness or weakness in the penis. Nerve damage is usually temporary, but it can be permanent in some cases.
  • Urethral complications: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Urethral complications can occur after phalloplasty, and they can lead to problems with urination. Urethral complications are usually treatable, but they can be serious in some cases.
  • Scarring: Scarring is a normal part of healing, but it can be more pronounced after phalloplasty. Scarring can be minimized by following the surgeon’s instructions for wound care.
  • Loss of the phallus: In rare cases, the phallus may be lost due to complications from surgery. This is a serious complication, but it is very rare.

It is important to talk to your surgeon about the potential risks and complications of phalloplasty before you decide to have the surgery. Your surgeon can help you understand the risks and make sure that you are aware of all the possible outcomes.

Here are some additional things to consider when weighing the risks and benefits of phalloplasty:

  • Your overall health: Phalloplasty is a major surgery, and it is important to be in good health before you have the surgery.
  • Your lifestyle: Phalloplasty can have a significant impact on your lifestyle. You will need to take time off from work or school, and you may need to adjust your activities.
  • Your goals: Phalloplasty can help you achieve your gender affirmation goals. However, it is important to have realistic expectations about what the surgery can achieve.

Phalloplasty, like any surgical procedure, carries potential risks and complications. It is important to be aware of these risks and discuss them with your surgeon before undergoing the procedure. While the following list covers some possible complications, it is not exhaustive:

  1. Infection: Infection is a potential risk after any surgical procedure, including phalloplasty. Antibiotics are typically prescribed to minimize the risk of infection, and careful wound care is crucial.
  2. Hematoma and Seroma: Hematoma refers to the collection of blood under the skin, while seroma is the accumulation of fluid. These can occur after surgery and may require drainage to prevent complications.
  3. Wound Dehiscence: Wound dehiscence is the separation or opening of the surgical incision. It may require additional surgical intervention or wound care to promote healing.
  4. Skin Necrosis: In rare cases, the skin used for phalloplasty may experience compromised blood flow, leading to tissue death (necrosis). This may require further surgical interventions, such as debridement or revision.
  5. Urethral Complications: Urethral complications can include urethral strictures (narrowing of the urethra), fistulas (abnormal connections), or urinary incontinence. These complications may require additional procedures to address and improve urinary function.
  6. Nerve Damage: There is a risk of nerve damage during phalloplasty, which can lead to changes in sensation or loss of sensation in the neophallus or surrounding areas. Nerve regeneration and sensation recovery can take time, and complete restoration of sensation may not always be possible.
  7. Scarring: Scarring is an inherent part of any surgical procedure, and phalloplasty is no exception. The extent and visibility of scarring can vary depending on the surgical technique used, individual healing, and post-operative care.
  8. Complications with Erectile Implants: If an erectile device implantation is performed as part of phalloplasty, there can be complications related to the implant, such as infection, mechanical failure, or the need for revision surgeries.
  9. Psychological and Emotional Challenges: Undergoing gender-affirming surgeries like phalloplasty can also present psychological and emotional challenges, including adjustment to body changes, managing expectations, and addressing potential concerns regarding body image and self-acceptance.

It is important to note that the risks and complications can vary depending on individual factors, such as overall health, specific surgical techniques used, and the expertise of the surgical team. Your surgeon will discuss these risks with you in detail and take appropriate measures to minimize them. It is crucial to have open and honest communication with your surgical team, follow their post-operative instructions, and attend regular follow-up appointments to monitor your progress and address any concerns that may arise during the recovery process.