Gender confirmation surgery (GCS) is a major surgery that can have potential risks and complications. These risks vary depending on the specific procedure, but some common risks include:

  • Bleeding. Bleeding is a common risk with any surgery, but it is more likely to occur with GCS.
  • Infection. Infection is another common risk with GCS. It is important to take antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor to help prevent infection.
  • Nerve damage. Nerve damage can occur during GCS, which can lead to numbness or tingling in the area.
  • Scarring. Scarring is a natural part of the healing process, but it can be more pronounced with GCS.
  • Complications with implants. If implants are used during GCS, there is a risk of complications, such as implant migration or rupture.
  • Pain. Pain is a normal part of the healing process after GCS, but it can be severe in some cases.
  • Undesired results. There is always a risk that the results of GCS will not be what you expected. This can be due to a number of factors, including the surgeon’s skill, your individual anatomy, and your expectations.

It is important to discuss the risks and complications of GCS with your doctor before making a decision about whether or not to have the surgery. Your doctor can help you understand the risks and make sure that you are a good candidate for the surgery.

Gender confirmation surgery (also known as gender reassignment surgery or sex reassignment surgery) is a complex and invasive procedure that carries certain risks and potential complications. It’s important to note that the specific risks and complications can vary depending on the type of surgery performed and individual circumstances. Here are some general risks and complications associated with gender confirmation surgery:

  1. Surgical Risks: Any surgical procedure carries inherent risks such as anesthesia complications, bleeding, infection, blood clots, and adverse reactions to medications.
  2. Wound Complications: Following surgery, there is a risk of wound-related complications such as hematoma (collection of blood), seroma (collection of fluid), wound separation, delayed wound healing, or infection.
  3. Scarring: Surgery involves incisions, which may result in visible scars. The extent and visibility of scarring can vary depending on individual factors and surgical techniques.
  4. Pain and Discomfort: Postoperative pain and discomfort are common and can vary in intensity and duration. Adequate pain management is essential during the recovery period.
  5. Loss of Sensation: There is a possibility of temporary or permanent loss of sensation in the surgical site or surrounding areas. Nerve damage during surgery can result in altered sensation or numbness.
  6. Unsatisfactory Aesthetics or Results: Despite careful planning and skilled surgical techniques, the desired aesthetic outcome may not be achieved. Revision surgeries may be necessary to address concerns or improve results.
  7. Urinary Complications: For individuals undergoing genital reconstruction surgery, there may be risks of urinary complications such as urinary tract infections, urinary incontinence, or urinary strictures.
  8. Sexual Function: Gender confirmation surgery can impact sexual function and sensation. It’s important to have realistic expectations and discuss potential changes with your surgeon.
  9. Psychological and Emotional Considerations: Gender confirmation surgery is a major step in a person’s transition journey, and it can have psychological and emotional implications. It is important to have appropriate mental health support throughout the process.

It’s crucial for individuals considering gender confirmation surgery to have a thorough discussion with a qualified and experienced surgeon who specializes in transgender healthcare. They can provide detailed information about the specific risks, complications, and potential outcomes associated with the chosen surgical procedure.

Here are some additional resources that you may find helpful:

  • The Trevor Project:
  • GLAAD:
  • Trans Lifeline: