There are a number of surgical options available for FTM individuals, including:

  • Top surgery: This surgery removes the breasts and creates a more masculine chest. There are two main types of top surgery: double incision mastectomy (DI) and periareolar mastectomy. DI is the most common type of top surgery and involves making two incisions around the areola and one vertical incision down the center of the chest. Periareolar mastectomy is a less invasive type of top surgery that involves making incisions around the areola only.
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  • Hysterectomy and oophorectomy: This surgery removes the uterus and ovaries. Hysterectomy is often recommended for FTM individuals who are taking testosterone, as testosterone can increase the risk of certain cancers of the reproductive organs. Oophorectomy is not always necessary, but it may be recommended for some individuals.
  • Metoidioplasty: This surgery creates a penis from the clitoris and surrounding tissue. Metoidioplasty is a less invasive option than phalloplasty, but it does not result in a fully functional penis.
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  • Phalloplasty: This surgery creates a penis from tissue taken from another part of the body, such as the arm or leg. Phalloplasty is a more complex and invasive surgery than metoidioplasty, but it can result in a fully functional penis.
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The best surgical option for you will depend on your individual circumstances and preferences. It is important to talk to a doctor who is experienced in working with transgender people to discuss your options and make the best decision for you.

It is also important to note that surgery is not always necessary for FTM individuals. Some individuals may be comfortable with their bodies without surgery. However, for other individuals, surgery can be an important part of their transition.

If you are considering surgery, it is important to talk to a doctor about the risks and benefits before starting treatment.

Here are some additional resources that you may find helpful:

  • The Trevor Project: A national organization that provides crisis intervention and suicide prevention services to LGBTQ youth.
  • Trans Lifeline: A national crisis hotline for transgender people.
  • Gender Spectrum: An organization that provides resources and support for transgender and gender-diverse children, youth, and families.
  • The Human Rights Campaign: A national organization that works to achieve equality for LGBTQ people.

Female-to-Male (FTM) individuals may choose to pursue various surgical options as part of their gender transition. These surgeries aim to help align an individual’s physical characteristics with their gender identity. It’s important to note that not all FTM individuals opt for surgical procedures, and the decision to undergo surgery is highly personal and based on individual needs and preferences. Here are some common surgical options for FTM individuals:

  1. Chest Reconstruction (Top Surgery):
    • Double Incision Mastectomy: This is the most common technique for chest reconstruction in FTM individuals. It involves the removal of breast tissue through horizontal incisions made beneath the pectoral muscles. The nipples are often resized and repositioned to create a more masculine appearance. Liposuction may be used to remove excess fatty tissue in the chest area.
    • Periareolar or Keyhole Surgery: This technique is suitable for individuals with minimal breast tissue. It involves smaller incisions around the areola or in the underarm area, through which breast tissue is removed. This technique is best suited for individuals with smaller breasts and minimal excess skin.
  2. Genital Reconstruction (Bottom Surgery):
    • Phalloplasty: Phalloplasty is a complex surgical procedure that constructs a neophallus (new penis) using tissue grafts from other parts of the body, such as the forearm, thigh, or abdomen. The procedure involves multiple stages and may include additional procedures for urethral lengthening and placement of penile implants for erectile function.
    • Metoidioplasty: Metoidioplasty is a procedure that enhances the growth of the clitoris (which can enlarge on testosterone) to create a neophallus. The ligaments holding the clitoris in place are released, and the clitoral tissue is repositioned to resemble a small penis. Additional procedures can include urethral lengthening and scrotoplasty (creation of a scrotum).
  3. Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy: FTM individuals who have not had a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) and oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries) prior to or during their transition may choose to undergo these procedures. This is often done to stop menstruation and eliminate the need for ongoing gynecological care. However, it’s important to discuss potential health considerations and the impact on hormone levels with healthcare professionals.

It’s crucial for FTM individuals considering surgery to consult with experienced healthcare professionals, such as plastic surgeons, urologists, or gynecologists, who specialize in transgender healthcare. These professionals can provide information about the available options, discuss the risks and benefits, and help individuals make informed decisions based on their specific circumstances and goals.

It’s worth noting that surgical procedures carry potential risks, require a thorough evaluation, and often involve a comprehensive evaluation process before proceeding. Mental health support and counseling may also be recommended before and after surgery to ensure well-being and assist with the transition process.