Transgender individuals have diverse experiences and medical interventions related to their bodies and reproductive organs. The reproductive anatomy of a transgender person will depend on several factors, including their assigned sex at birth, any gender-affirming surgeries they’ve had, and their personal choices regarding medical transition.

Here’s an overview of reproductive organs based on assigned sex at birth and potential surgeries:

  1. Transgender Women (MTF – Male to Female)
    • Assigned Sex at Birth: Individuals assigned male at birth typically have testes and a penis.
    • After Surgery: Some transgender women choose to undergo gender-affirming surgeries such as:
      • Orchiectomy: Removal of the testes.
      • Vaginoplasty: Creation of a neovagina using penile and/or scrotal skin or other grafts. After this surgery, the individual has a constructed vaginal canal, but they do not have ovaries, a uterus, or a cervix.
  2. Transgender Men (FTM – Female to Male)
    • Assigned Sex at Birth: Individuals assigned female at birth typically have ovaries, a uterus, a cervix, fallopian tubes, and a vagina.
    • After Surgery: Some transgender men choose to undergo surgeries such as:
      • Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus.
      • Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy (BSO): Removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes.
      • Phalloplasty: Creation of a neophallus, often using skin from another part of the body. The constructed penis has the appearance of a biological penis but doesn’t have the same reproductive functionality.
      • Metoidioplasty: A procedure that creates a neophallus using the clitoris, which has been enlarged by testosterone. This results in a smaller phallus compared to a phalloplasty.

It’s essential to note the following:

  • Not all transgender individuals choose to or can afford to undergo surgeries. Many are content with their bodies as they are or opt for non-surgical interventions.
  • Being transgender is about gender identity, not necessarily about surgical status or physical anatomy.
  • Modern medicine does not yet allow for full reproductive organ transplants in the context of gender transition. This means, for example, that a transgender woman cannot receive a uterus transplant, and a transgender man cannot receive testes that produce viable sperm.

Discussions around transgender reproductive health are multifaceted, encompassing medical, social, and ethical dimensions.