Transitioning from female to male (FTM) often involves a combination of hormonal treatments and surgeries. I’ll provide an overview of the medical procedures often pursued by transgender men as part of their transition. It’s important to note that not all transgender men will choose to, or can afford to, undergo all (or any) of these procedures. Transition is a deeply personal journey, and what’s right for one individual may not be right for another.

  1. Hormone Therapy: This is often the first step in the medical transition process for FTM individuals.
    • Testosterone: Administered either via injection, gel, patches, or other delivery methods, testosterone induces masculinizing effects such as deepening of the voice, increased muscle mass, facial and body hair growth, and cessation of menstruation.
  2. Top Surgery (Chest Masculinization Surgery): This refers to surgical procedures that create a male-contoured chest.
    • Double Mastectomy with Nipple Graft: This is one of the more common procedures where breast tissue is removed, and the nipple and areola are resized and repositioned.
    • Keyhole Surgery: For those with smaller chest sizes, a less invasive procedure where small incisions are made, and breast tissue is removed.
  3. Hysterectomy: This involves the removal of the uterus. Some people also opt for an oophorectomy, which is the removal of the ovaries.
  4. Bottom Surgery: There are several surgical procedures available for FTM bottom surgery, and the choice often depends on the desired outcome and individual factors.
    • Metoidioplasty: This procedure takes advantage of the clitoral growth caused by testosterone. The ligaments supporting the clitoris are released, allowing it to extend further from the body. The urethra can be extended to allow standing urination.
    • Phalloplasty: This procedure involves constructing a phallus (or penis) using grafts from donor sites on the body, such as the forearm or thigh. This is a more complex surgery, often requiring multiple procedures and the possibility of incorporating a penile implant.
    • Scrotoplasty: Creation of a scrotum using labial tissue. This can be done in conjunction with metoidioplasty or phalloplasty. Testicular implants can be added for a more authentic look and feel.
  5. Facial masculinization surgery (FMS): While testosterone can lead to some masculinizing facial changes, some individuals opt for surgical interventions to further masculinize the face. This might include procedures like cheek augmentation, jaw contouring, or forehead lengthening.
  6. Voice Surgery: Though testosterone often results in a deeper voice, not all individuals are satisfied with the depth achieved. There are surgeries to lower the pitch of the voice, but these are less common.

It’s essential for individuals considering any of these procedures to consult with experienced medical professionals. Transitioning medically requires a thorough understanding of the risks, benefits, and expected outcomes of each procedure.