Sex reassignment surgery, also known as gender-affirming surgery or gender confirmation surgery, is a surgical procedure that some individuals undergo to align their physical body with their gender identity. For individuals assigned female at birth but who identify as male, the surgical procedure typically involves several steps and techniques to create male genitalia.

Here are some common procedures involved in female-to-male (FTM) sex reassignment surgery:
⦁ Top Surgery (Chest Reconstruction): FTM individuals often undergo chest reconstruction surgery, also known as “top surgery,” to create a more masculine chest appearance. This typically involves the removal of breast tissue and reshaping the chest to create a flatter and more masculine contour.
⦁ Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy: Some FTM individuals choose to have a hysterectomy, which involves removing the uterus, and oophorectomy, which involves removing the ovaries. These procedures are performed to eliminate menstruation and reduce the production of female hormones.
⦁ Metoidioplasty or Phalloplasty: FTM individuals may choose to undergo metoidioplasty or phalloplasty to create a neophallus (new penis). The specific technique used depends on individual preferences, anatomy, and surgeon expertise. Metoidioplasty involves releasing and enhancing the clitoral tissue to create a larger phallus, while phalloplasty involves using donor tissue (such as from the forearm or thigh) to construct a neophallus.
⦁ Urethral Lengthening: Urethral lengthening is typically performed during phalloplasty and involves extending the urethra to allow for urination through the neophallus. This can enable individuals to urinate while standing.
⦁ Scrotoplasty: Scrotoplasty is a procedure performed during phalloplasty to create a scrotum. This involves shaping and positioning the labial tissue to form a scrotal sac.

It’s important to note that sex reassignment surgery is a complex and highly individualized process. The specific procedures, techniques, and order of surgeries may vary depending on the individual’s goals, anatomy, and surgeon recommendations. It is crucial to consult with experienced surgeons who specialize in transgender healthcare to discuss the available options, risks, benefits, potential complications, and expected outcomes based on your specific situation.

In addition to surgical interventions, hormone therapy and psychological support are typically part of the overall transition process for FTM individuals. It is recommended to work with a healthcare team, including mental health professionals and transgender healthcare specialists, to ensure comprehensive care and support throughout the transition journey.