“Sex change operation,” also known as gender confirmation surgery or gender reassignment surgery, refers to a series of surgical procedures that are done to align an individual’s physical characteristics with their gender identity. The specific procedures involved can vary depending on whether the person is transitioning from male to female (MTF) or from female to male (FTM).

For Male-to-Female (MTF) individuals, the primary surgery is called vaginoplasty, which involves the creation of a neovagina. During this procedure, the penis and testes are typically removed, and the skin and tissues are used to construct a vagina. Breast augmentation surgery may also be performed to enhance the appearance of the breasts.

For Female-to-Male (FTM) individuals, the primary surgery is called phalloplasty or metoidioplasty. Phalloplasty involves constructing a neophallus using various techniques, which may include grafting tissue from other parts of the body, such as the forearm or thigh. Metoidioplasty, on the other hand, involves releasing the ligaments that restrict the growth of the clitoris due to hormone therapy, resulting in a more prominent and functional phallus. Some individuals may also choose to undergo chest masculinization surgery (removal of breast tissue) and/or hysterectomy and oophorectomy (removal of the uterus and ovaries).

It’s important to note that these surgeries are major procedures and require careful consideration, evaluation, and support from qualified healthcare professionals who specialize in transgender healthcare. The decision to pursue gender confirmation surgery is personal and should be made in consultation with a healthcare team that includes mental health professionals, surgeons, and other specialists who can provide guidance, support, and ensure the best possible outcomes.