Male-to-female (MTF) gender confirmation surgery, also known as gender reassignment surgery or genital reconstruction surgery, involves several procedures to help align the physical appearance of the body with a person’s gender identity. Here is an overview of the typical surgical options involved in MTF surgery:

  1. Orchiectomy: The removal of the testes is usually the first step in MTF surgery. This eliminates the body’s testosterone production and reduces masculine secondary sex characteristics.
  2. Vaginoplasty: Vaginoplasty is a surgical procedure to create a neovagina. There are different techniques, such as penile inversion, sigmoid colon or intestinal graft, and newer non-penile inversion methods. The procedure involves removing the penis and using the penile skin and/or grafts to construct the vaginal canal. The clitoris can also be created from the glans of the penis, providing sexual sensation.
  3. Labiaplasty: Labiaplasty involves creating the labia minora and labia majora, which are the outer and inner “lips” of the vulva. This helps to create a more natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance.
  4. Clitoroplasty: Clitoroplasty involves shaping the neoclitoris to resemble a natural clitoris. The surgeon can use tissue from the penis or other sources to create the clitoris, which can provide sexual sensation.
  5. Breast Augmentation: Many transgender women pursue breast augmentation surgery to enhance the size and shape of their breasts. This can involve the placement of implants or the use of fat transfer techniques.

It’s important to note that the specific procedures involved in MTF surgery may vary depending on the surgeon’s technique and the individual’s desired outcomes. Each person’s journey is unique, and surgical options should be discussed with a qualified healthcare professional experienced in transgender healthcare. Additionally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen and anti-androgens is often a part of the transition process to promote further feminization and body changes.