Male-to-female (MTF) gender reassignment surgery, also known as gender confirmation surgery or sex reassignment surgery, is a surgical procedure that involves transforming the genital and reproductive anatomy of a person assigned male at birth to resemble that of a person assigned female at birth. The primary surgical procedures involved in MTF surgery include:

  1. Orchiectomy: This procedure involves the removal of the testes, resulting in the cessation of testosterone production. It is typically the first step in the surgical process for transgender women and is often performed before other procedures.
  2. Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty: The most common technique for creating a neovagina involves the inversion of the penile and scrotal skin to form the vaginal canal. The penile shaft is reshaped and used to construct the labia majora. The sensitive glans of the penis is repurposed to create a clitoral structure.
  3. Clitoroplasty: This procedure involves constructing a clitoral hood and a clitoral glans using the sensitive tissue from the head of the penis. The size and sensitivity of the clitoral structure vary depending on the individual’s preferences and surgeon’s technique.
  4. Labiaplasty: Labiaplasty involves creating the labia minora by using additional tissue from the penile shaft or scrotum. The labia minora are formed to resemble the inner lips of the vulva.

Additional procedures may include:

  • Breast augmentation: Many transgender women choose to undergo breast augmentation surgery to increase breast size and achieve a more feminine appearance.
  • Facial feminization surgery (FFS): Some transgender women opt for FFS, which involves a combination of surgical procedures to feminize facial features, such as the forehead, nose, chin, and jawline.

It’s important to note that MTF surgery is a complex process that requires careful consideration, planning, and consultation with qualified healthcare professionals who specialize in transgender healthcare. The specific procedures performed and the order in which they are done may vary depending on individual preferences, healthcare provider recommendations, and surgical techniques employed. Recovery times and potential risks and complications associated with these procedures should also be discussed with the healthcare team.