Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), also known as gender-affirming surgery or male-to-female (MTF) bottom surgery, is a series of procedures that are performed to help transgender women transition physically to align with their gender identity. Here is an overview of the typical steps involved in female-to-male (FTM) sex reassignment surgery:

  1. Hormone Therapy: Prior to surgery, many transgender individuals undergo hormone therapy to induce masculinizing effects. This usually involves taking testosterone to develop secondary male sexual characteristics, such as facial hair growth, deepened voice, and body hair.
  2. Chest Reconstruction (Top Surgery): One of the primary procedures for FTM transition is chest reconstruction surgery. This involves removing breast tissue to create a more masculine chest contour. The technique used may vary based on factors such as breast size and skin elasticity, and options include double incision mastectomy, periareolar mastectomy, or keyhole surgery.
  3. Genital Reconstruction (Bottom Surgery): The main component of FTM sex reassignment surgery is genital reconstruction. There are several surgical techniques available:
  4. Metoidioplasty: This procedure involves releasing the clitoral hood to expose the enlarged clitoris (created through hormone therapy) and using it to construct a small phallus. The urethra can be lengthened to allow for standing urination. Additional procedures, such as scrotoplasty and testicular implants, may be performed to create a more masculine appearance.
  5. Phalloplasty: Phalloplasty is a more complex procedure that involves constructing a neophallus using tissue grafts, typically from the forearm or thigh. The neophallus is then sculpted to create a phallic structure. Nerve and vascular connections are made to enable sensation and erectile function. Phalloplasty can be a multi-stage process, requiring multiple surgeries over a period of time.
  6. Other Procedures: Depending on individual needs and preferences, additional procedures may be performed to enhance the overall masculinization. These can include procedures such as hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) and oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries).

It’s important to note that the specific procedures and techniques used in FTM sex reassignment surgery can vary depending on the surgeon, individual anatomy, and personal preferences. Consulting with experienced surgeons who specialize in transgender healthcare is essential to understand the available options, potential risks and benefits, and to develop a personalized treatment plan.

Recovery times for FTM sex reassignment surgery can vary, and it’s crucial to follow the post-operative instructions provided by the surgical team. Regular follow-up visits will be scheduled to monitor healing and address any concerns.

It’s recommended to consult with a healthcare provider who specializes in transgender healthcare or a qualified gender-affirming surgeon for a comprehensive evaluation and to discuss the specific details of FTM sex reassignment surgery based on individual circumstances.