Transgender or gender confirmation surgeries include a variety of medical procedures that individuals may choose to undergo as part of their transition. Not all transgender individuals choose to or can afford to have surgery, and their identities are valid regardless of whether they have had surgery or not. The two main categories of surgeries are male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM).

  1. MtF Surgeries:
  • Vaginoplasty: This is the construction of a vagina using penile and scrotal tissue. The procedure generally involves removal of the testes (orchiectomy) and the creation of a neovagina, clitoris, and labia. The neoclitoris is typically made from a portion of the sensitive glans of the penis to preserve erotic sensation.
  • Breast Augmentation: Some transgender women may choose to have breast augmentation surgery to increase the size of their breasts, particularly if hormone replacement therapy does not lead to the desired breast development.
  • Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS): This set of procedures can involve a variety of surgeries such as reshaping the forehead and jaw, rhinoplasty (nose job), cheek implants, and other procedures to make the face appear more typically feminine.
  1. FtM Surgeries:
  • Mastectomy (Top Surgery): This procedure involves the removal of the breasts and the shaping of a male-contoured chest.
  • Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy: These are procedures to remove the uterus and ovaries, respectively.
  • Phalloplasty and Metoidioplasty: These are procedures to construct a neopenis. Phalloplasty involves using skin from another part of the body (often the forearm or thigh) to construct a penis. Metoidioplasty involves creating a penis from the clitoral tissue, which has been enlarged through hormone therapy.

All of these surgeries come with their own potential risks and complications, such as infection, poor wound healing, dissatisfaction with cosmetic results, loss of sensation, or complications related to general anesthesia. It’s important to have a thorough discussion with a knowledgeable healthcare provider before deciding to undergo any of these procedures.

The information I’ve provided is accurate as of my last training cut-off in September 2021, and the medical procedures might have been updated or changed since then. Always consult with healthcare professionals to get the most recent and relevant information.