The gender confirmation surgery for female-to-male (FTM) transgender individuals, also known as gender reassignment surgery or phalloplasty, involves several procedures to create male genitalia.

Here is a general outline of the common procedures involved:
⦁ Hysterectomy and oophorectomy: This surgical removal of the uterus and ovaries is often performed as the first step for FTM individuals. It helps stop menstruation and reduces estrogen production.
⦁ Metoidioplasty or Phalloplasty: These are the two primary techniques for creating a neophallus (new penis) for FTM individuals.
⦁ Metoidioplasty: This technique involves releasing and enlarging the clitoris, which has been naturally enlarged due to hormone therapy. The urethra is lengthened to allow for urination through the neophallus. The procedure may also include scrotoplasty (creation of a scrotum) and sometimes, placement of testicular implants.
⦁ Phalloplasty: This procedure involves constructing a neophallus using skin grafts typically taken from the forearm, thigh, or other donor sites. The neophallus is then shaped and positioned, and the urethra is created to allow for urination. Phalloplasty is a more complex surgery that may require multiple stages.
⦁ Additional procedures: Some individuals may choose to undergo additional procedures to enhance their physical appearance or align their secondary sexual characteristics with their gender identity. These procedures may include chest masculinization (removal of breast tissue or chest contouring), facial masculinization surgery, or voice masculinization surgery.

It’s important to note that the specific procedures and techniques may vary depending on individual needs, preferences, and the expertise of the surgeon. Each patient’s journey is unique, and the surgical plan is tailored to their specific goals and circumstances. Prior to undergoing any surgical procedures, it is crucial to consult with a qualified surgeon who specializes in transgender surgeries to discuss the options, risks, benefits, and expected outcomes.