In India, gender-affirming surgeries for transgender men (female-to-male, FTM) are available at various medical centers and hospitals. It’s important to note that specific surgical procedures, techniques, and resources may vary among different healthcare providers in the country.

Here are some key points to consider regarding bottom surgery (genital reconstruction surgery) for FTM individuals in India:
⦁ Surgeon Selection: It’s essential to choose a skilled and experienced surgeon who specializes in gender-affirming surgeries. Researching and consulting with multiple surgeons is recommended to find the right fit for your needs. Some well-known gender-affirming surgeons in India include Dr. Kaushik, Dr. Narendra Kaushik, Dr. Jayanta Bain, and Dr. Anubhav Gupta, among others.
⦁ Surgical Techniques: The specific surgical techniques used in bottom surgery can vary, and it’s important to discuss your options with the surgeon. Common procedures for FTM genital reconstruction may include metoidioplasty (using the existing clitoral tissue to create a neophallus) or phalloplasty (using donor tissue or grafts to construct a neophallus). The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as individual anatomy, preferences, and desired outcomes.
⦁ Healthcare Facilities: India has several healthcare facilities that offer gender-affirming surgeries, including well-known hospitals and specialized clinics. It’s important to consider factors such as the reputation of the institution, the availability of post-operative care, and the support services provided.
Cost and Insurance: The cost of bottom surgery can vary depending on the chosen procedure, surgeon’s fees, hospital charges, and other associated expenses. It’s important to inquire about the total cost, potential financing options, and whether any insurance coverage is available. Some insurance providers in India have started covering gender-affirming surgeries, so it’s worth exploring insurance options if applicable.
⦁ Supportive Care: Gender-affirming surgeries require comprehensive pre-operative and post-operative care. It is important to seek support from healthcare professionals who are knowledgeable about transgender healthcare, including hormone therapy, mental health support, and post-operative care.

It is recommended to schedule consultations with multiple surgeons, ask questions, and gather detailed information about the procedures, risks, benefits, recovery processes, and expected outcomes. Additionally, connect with local transgender support groups and organizations in India to gain insights from others who have undergone similar surgeries and to access resources for pre- and post-operative support.

As medical practices and availability can change over time, it is essential to reach out directly to healthcare providers and surgeons specializing in gender-affirming surgeries in India for the most up-to-date and accurate information specific to your needs.

FTM bottom surgery India

FTM bottom surgery in India may involve procedures like phalloplasty or metoidioplasty, which are gender-affirming surgeries aimed at creating male genitalia. Here’s an overview:

  1. Phalloplasty:
    • Phalloplasty is a complex surgical procedure involving the construction of a neophallus. It may use tissue grafts, typically from the forearm or other donor sites, to create the phallus. Urethral lengthening for standing urination and erectile implants are potential components of phalloplasty.
  1. Metoidioplasty:
    • Metoidioplasty is a procedure that releases the testosterone-enlarged clitoris (neophallus) to improve functionality. It may also include urethral lengthening for standing urination.
  1. Urethral Lengthening:
    • Both phalloplasty and metoidioplasty may involve urethral lengthening to allow for standing urination.
  1. Scrotoplasty:
    • Scrotoplasty is a surgical procedure that involves the creation of a scrotum to house testicular implants. It is often performed in conjunction with phalloplasty.
  1. Testicular Implants:
    • Testicular implants may be inserted into the scrotum to provide a more natural appearance.
  1. Vaginectomy:
    • Vaginectomy is a procedure to remove the vaginal canal, which is often done as part of bottom surgery for FTM individuals.
  1. Hysterectomy:
    • Hysterectomy, the removal of the uterus, may also be performed as part of gender-affirming surgeries for FTM individuals.
  1. Glansplasty:
    • Glansplasty involves shaping the head (glans) of the neophallus to create a more realistic appearance.
  1. Recovery Period:
    • The recovery period for FTM bottom surgery can vary based on the specific procedures performed. It generally involves a period of rest, wound care, and follow-up appointments.
  1. Cost and Accessibility:
    • The cost of FTM bottom surgery in India can vary depending on the procedures chosen and the healthcare facility. Accessibility to gender-affirming surgeries may differ across regions.

Important Considerations:

  • Before undergoing FTM bottom surgery, individuals should consult with experienced gender-affirming surgeons who are knowledgeable about the specific procedures and their potential outcomes.
  • Understanding the potential risks, benefits, and postoperative care requirements is crucial for informed decision-making.
  • Researching and selecting reputable healthcare facilities and surgeons is essential to ensure a safe and successful outcome.

For the most accurate and up-to-date information, individuals considering FTM bottom surgery in India should consult directly with gender-affirming healthcare professionals or clinics that specialize in transgender care.


Surgeon Selection

Selecting the right surgeon for any medical procedure is a critical decision that can significantly impact the outcome and overall experience. When it comes to gender-affirming surgeries, such as those for transgender individuals, the importance of surgeon selection is even more pronounced. These surgeries, including top surgeries (chest procedures) and bottom surgeries (genital procedures), are integral parts of the gender affirmation process. Choosing a skilled and experienced surgeon is paramount for achieving desired results and ensuring a positive overall experience.

Research and Education:

Before delving into the selection process, individuals should invest time in thorough research and education. Understanding the available procedures, potential risks, benefits, and postoperative care requirements is crucial. Knowledge about the different surgical techniques, such as phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, mastectomy, or chest reconstruction, empowers individuals to make informed decisions.

  1. Certification and Credentials:

One of the primary factors to consider when selecting a surgeon is their certification and credentials. Surgeons specializing in gender-affirming surgeries should ideally be board-certified in their respective fields and possess relevant training and experience in transgender healthcare.

  1. Experience in Gender-Affirming Surgeries:

Experience is a key determinant of surgical proficiency. Look for surgeons who have a substantial track record in performing gender-affirming surgeries. A surgeon’s familiarity with the specific procedures and their success rates can be indicative of their expertise in the field.

  1. Specialization in Transgender Healthcare:

Choosing a surgeon who specializes in transgender healthcare is advantageous. Such specialists are more likely to be attuned to the unique needs and considerations of transgender patients, offering a more empathetic and comprehensive approach to care.

  1. Patient Testimonials and Reviews:

Patient testimonials and reviews provide valuable insights into the surgeon’s skills, bedside manner, and overall patient satisfaction. Reading about the experiences of others who have undergone similar procedures can help prospective patients gauge what to expect.

  1. Consultation Process:

A thorough consultation process is essential for establishing a rapport between the patient and the surgeon. During consultations, patients can discuss their goals, expectations, and any concerns they may have. A surgeon who takes the time to understand the patient’s needs and provides clear information is likely to foster a more positive patient-surgeon relationship.

  1. Hospital Affiliation and Facilities:

The surgeon’s affiliation with reputable medical institutions and the facilities where surgeries are performed should be considered. Access to state-of-the-art facilities and a supportive medical team can contribute to a smoother surgical experience.

  1. Inclusive and Supportive Practice:

A surgeon’s practice should be inclusive and supportive of diverse gender identities and expressions. A welcoming and respectful environment is crucial for ensuring that individuals feel comfortable throughout their surgical journey.

  1. Transparency about Costs and Insurance:

Transparency about the costs associated with surgery and any potential insurance coverage is vital. Surgeons who provide clear information about fees, payment plans, and insurance processing demonstrate a commitment to open communication and transparency.

  1. Accessibility and Location:

Consider the geographical location of the surgeon’s practice and the accessibility of the facility. Individuals may need to travel for surgery, and factors such as transportation, accommodation, and postoperative follow-up appointments should be taken into account.

  1. Postoperative Care and Follow-Up:

The quality of postoperative care and follow-up is as important as the surgery itself. Surgeons who prioritize comprehensive postoperative care contribute to better outcomes and patient satisfaction. Understanding the follow-up process and having clear communication channels for postoperative concerns is essential.

  1. Second Opinions:

Seeking second opinions is a prudent step in the decision-making process. Consulting with multiple surgeons allows individuals to compare approaches, recommendations, and potential outcomes, aiding in the selection of the most suitable surgeon.


The process of selecting a surgeon for gender-affirming surgeries requires careful consideration and research. By prioritizing factors such as certification, experience, patient testimonials, inclusive practices, and transparent communication, individuals can make informed decisions that align with their unique needs and goals. Surgeon selection is a crucial step on the journey towards gender affirmation, and choosing a skilled and compassionate professional enhances the likelihood of a positive and fulfilling experience.

Surgical Techniques

Surgical techniques for gender-affirming surgeries vary depending on the specific procedure and the gender identity of the individual. These surgeries are designed to align an individual’s physical characteristics with their gender identity. Here, we will explore some of the key surgical techniques associated with both male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) gender-affirming surgeries.

Male-to-Female (MTF) Surgical Techniques:

  1. Vaginoplasty:
    • Penile Inversion Technique: This is a common method for creating a neovagina. It involves inverting the penile skin to form the vaginal canal.
    • Colon Graft Technique: In some cases, a section of the colon may be used to create the neovagina. This technique is less common due to the increased complexity and potential for complications.
  1. Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS):
    • Forehead Contouring: Reshaping the forehead to create a more feminine contour.
    • Tracheal Shave: Reducing the prominence of the Adam’s apple to achieve a more feminine neck appearance.
    • Rhinoplasty: Altering the nose to achieve a more feminine shape.
  1. Breast Augmentation:
    • Breast Implants: Using silicone or saline implants to enhance breast size and shape.
  1. Tracheal Shave:
    • Reducing the prominence of the Adam’s apple through a surgical procedure called a tracheal shave or thyroid cartilage reduction.
  1. Laryngoplasty:
    • Adjusting the pitch of the voice through surgery on the vocal cords.

Female-to-Male (FTM) Surgical Techniques:

  1. Top Surgery (Chest Masculinization):
    • Double Incision Mastectomy: Removing breast tissue through horizontal incisions, often leaving a horizontal scar.
    • Keyhole or Peri-Areolar Mastectomy: Removing breast tissue through a circular incision around the areola, suitable for individuals with smaller breasts.
  1. Phalloplasty:
    • Radial Forearm Flap: Using a flap of skin and tissue from the forearm to create the neophallus.
    • Anterolateral Thigh Flap: Using a flap from the thigh to construct the neophallus.
  1. Metoidioplasty:
    • Clitoral Release: Unveiling the clitoris, which has been enlarged through hormone therapy.
    • Urethral Lengthening: Lengthening the urethra to allow for standing urination.
  1. Hysterectomy:
    • Removal of the uterus, which is often performed as part of gender-affirming surgeries for FTM individuals.
  1. Scrotoplasty:
    • Creating a scrotum to house testicular implants.
  1. Testicular Implants:
    • Inserting silicone testicular implants into the scrotum for a more natural appearance.
  1. Penile Prosthesis Implantation:
    • For individuals undergoing phalloplasty, a penile prosthesis may be implanted to enable erectile function.
  1. Clitoral Release:
    • Releasing the clitoris, which has been enlarged through hormone therapy, to achieve a more prominent appearance.
  1. Urethral Lengthening:
    • Lengthening the urethra to allow for standing urination, often performed in conjunction with metoidioplasty or phalloplasty.

These surgical techniques are complex and should be performed by experienced surgeons specializing in gender-affirming surgeries. It’s essential for individuals considering these procedures to undergo thorough consultations with healthcare professionals, discuss their goals and expectations, and understand the potential risks and benefits associated with each technique. Additionally, the decision to undergo surgery is deeply personal, and individuals may choose different combinations of procedures based on their gender affirmation goals.


Healthcare Facilities

Healthcare facilities that specialize in gender-affirming care play a crucial role in providing comprehensive and supportive services for transgender and gender-diverse individuals. These facilities are equipped to offer a range of medical, surgical, and mental health services tailored to address the unique needs of the transgender community. Here are key aspects and considerations related to healthcare facilities specializing in gender-affirming care:

  1. Multidisciplinary Teams:
    • Gender-affirming healthcare facilities typically have multidisciplinary teams consisting of healthcare professionals such as endocrinologists, plastic surgeons, urologists, gynecologists, mental health professionals, and support staff. This team-based approach ensures comprehensive care for individuals seeking gender-affirming services.
  2. Inclusive Environment:
    • Gender-affirming healthcare facilities prioritize creating an inclusive and affirming environment for all patients. This includes respectful and culturally competent care that acknowledges diverse gender identities and expressions.
  3. Hormone Therapy Services:
    • Facilities specializing in gender-affirming care often provide hormone therapy services for individuals seeking gender transition. This includes the administration of hormones such as testosterone or estrogen, as well as monitoring and adjusting hormone levels.
  4. Surgical Services:
    • Some healthcare facilities offer gender-affirming surgeries, including chest (top) surgeries, genital (bottom) surgeries, and facial feminization or masculinization surgeries. Surgeons specializing in these procedures work closely with patients to achieve their desired outcomes.
  5. Mental Health Support:
    • Mental health services are integral to gender-affirming care. Facilities often have mental health professionals, such as psychologists or counselors, who specialize in gender identity issues, providing support for individuals before, during, and after transition-related processes.
  6. Endocrinology Services:
    • Endocrinologists specializing in transgender healthcare play a key role in managing hormone therapy. They monitor hormone levels, assess any potential side effects, and adjust treatment plans as needed.
  7. Preoperative and Postoperative Care:
    • For individuals undergoing gender-affirming surgeries, healthcare facilities provide comprehensive preoperative and postoperative care. This includes pre-surgical evaluations, surgical planning, and ongoing follow-up care to monitor healing and address any concerns.
  8. Support Groups and Resources:
    • Gender-affirming healthcare facilities often facilitate or provide access to support groups, educational resources, and community events. These resources help individuals connect with others who share similar experiences and provide a supportive network.
  9. Insurance Navigation:
    • Navigating insurance coverage for gender-affirming care can be complex. Healthcare facilities specializing in this field often have staff dedicated to assisting patients in understanding their insurance coverage, submitting claims, and seeking authorization for procedures.
  • Cultural Competency Training:
    • Staff at gender-affirming healthcare facilities undergo cultural competency training to better understand and address the specific needs and challenges faced by transgender and gender-diverse individuals.
  • Telehealth Services:
    • In response to evolving healthcare trends, some gender-affirming healthcare facilities offer telehealth services, allowing patients to access certain aspects of care remotely.
  • Community Partnerships:
    • Establishing partnerships with local LGBTQ+ organizations, advocacy groups, and community resources enhances the reach and impact of gender-affirming healthcare facilities.

It’s important for individuals seeking gender-affirming care to research and choose healthcare facilities with a proven track record in providing affirming and comprehensive services. Additionally, open communication with healthcare providers, understanding available services, and considering the facility’s commitment to patient well-being contribute to a positive healthcare experience for transgender and gender-diverse individuals.

 Cost and Insurance

The cost of gender-affirming care, including medical interventions, hormone therapy, and gender-affirming surgeries, can vary widely depending on factors such as the specific procedures chosen, geographical location, healthcare provider fees, and associated expenses. Additionally, health insurance coverage plays a crucial role in managing costs for individuals seeking gender-affirming care. Here are key considerations related to the cost and insurance coverage of gender-affirming care:

  1. Hormone Therapy Costs:
  • Hormone therapy costs include the price of hormones such as testosterone for FTM individuals or estrogen and anti-androgens for MTF individuals. Costs may vary based on the type of medication, dosage, and frequency of administration.
  1. Therapy and Counseling Costs:
  • Mental health support is an integral part of gender-affirming care. Costs associated with therapy or counseling services may depend on the provider, frequency of sessions, and whether the services are covered by insurance.
  1. Surgical Costs:
  • Gender-affirming surgeries, such as top surgery (chest masculinization or breast augmentation) and bottom surgery (phalloplasty, vaginoplasty, etc.), can have significant costs. These costs encompass surgeon fees, facility fees, anesthesia fees, and postoperative care.
  1. Insurance Coverage:
  • The extent of insurance coverage for gender-affirming care varies among insurance plans. Some plans cover hormone therapy, mental health services, and certain gender-affirming surgeries, while others may have limitations or exclusions.
  1. Preauthorization and Documentation:
  • Many insurance plans require preauthorization for gender-affirming surgeries and may request documentation of medical necessity. Healthcare providers often work with patients to obtain preauthorization and submit necessary documentation.
  1. Out-of-Pocket Expenses:
  • Patients may be responsible for out-of-pocket expenses, including deductibles, copayments, and coinsurance. Understanding the terms of the insurance policy and the associated out-of-pocket costs is crucial for financial planning.
  1. Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) and Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs):
  • Individuals with HSAs or FSAs may use these accounts to cover eligible medical expenses related to gender-affirming care. Consultation with a financial advisor can provide guidance on maximizing these accounts for healthcare costs.
  1. Negotiating Fees:
  • Some healthcare providers may offer fee negotiations or sliding-scale fees based on financial need. It can be beneficial to discuss payment options with healthcare providers to make the cost more manageable.
  1. Financial Assistance Programs:
  • Some healthcare facilities and organizations offer financial assistance programs or grants to assist individuals in covering the costs of gender-affirming care. Researching available programs can provide additional support.
  1. Medicaid and Medicare Coverage: – Medicaid and Medicare coverage for gender-affirming care varies by state and individual circumstances. Advocacy efforts continue to expand coverage and access for transgender individuals.
  2. Appeal Processes: – If a claim is denied by the insurance company, patients have the right to appeal the decision. Working with healthcare providers to provide additional documentation may strengthen the appeal.
  3. Transparent Communication with Providers: – Open communication with healthcare providers about financial concerns is crucial. Providers may offer guidance on navigating costs, exploring insurance options, and accessing financial assistance.

Navigating the cost and insurance aspects of gender-affirming care requires careful planning and communication. Individuals seeking gender-affirming care should proactively engage with healthcare providers, understand insurance coverage details, explore available financial assistance options, and work towards creating a comprehensive plan that aligns with their healthcare goals. Additionally, staying informed about evolving insurance policies and advocacy efforts can contribute to increased access and coverage for transgender healthcare.

Supportive Care

Supportive care is a crucial aspect of the holistic approach to transgender and gender-diverse healthcare. It involves providing individuals with emotional, psychological, and social support throughout their gender-affirming journey. This support is essential for addressing the unique challenges and experiences faced by transgender individuals. Here are key components of supportive care in the context of transgender healthcare:

  1. Culturally Competent Care:
    • Healthcare providers offering supportive care should undergo training to ensure cultural competence. This involves understanding and respecting diverse gender identities and expressions.
  1. Mental Health Services:
    • Access to mental health services is integral to supportive care. Mental health professionals, including psychologists, counselors, and therapists, can provide emotional support, coping strategies, and assistance in navigating the psychological aspects of gender identity and transition.
  1. Support Groups:
    • Support groups bring together individuals with shared experiences to provide mutual support and camaraderie. These groups may focus on specific aspects of the gender-affirming journey, such as hormone therapy, surgery, or coming out.
  1. Community Resources:
    • Connecting individuals with community resources, including LGBTQ+ organizations, advocacy groups, and gender-affirming initiatives, enhances their support network. These resources can provide information, guidance, and social connections.
  1. Educational Resources:
    • Providing educational resources about gender identity, healthcare options, and the gender-affirming process helps individuals make informed decisions. This includes information about available treatments, potential risks, and expected outcomes.
  1. Navigating Social Challenges:
    • Supportive care addresses social challenges, including discrimination, stigma, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. Professionals offer guidance on navigating these challenges and building resilience.
  1. Family and Relationship Support:
    • Inclusive supportive care involves addressing the needs of individuals in the context of their families and relationships. Providing resources for families, partners, and friends can foster understanding and acceptance.
  1. Legal and Identity Document Assistance:
    • Supportive care may include assistance with legal and administrative processes related to gender marker changes, name changes, and other identity document updates. This can contribute to affirming individuals’ gender identity in various aspects of their lives.
  1. Access to Hormone Therapy:
    • Supportive care ensures access to hormone therapy for individuals seeking gender transition. This includes monitoring hormone levels, managing potential side effects, and addressing any concerns or questions.
  1. Patient Advocacy:
    • Advocacy on behalf of patients is a key element of supportive care. Healthcare providers can act as advocates in healthcare settings, ensuring that patients receive respectful and affirming care.
  1. Respect for Autonomy:
    • Supportive care respects individuals’ autonomy in decision-making regarding their gender-affirming journey. This includes discussing treatment options, potential risks, and allowing individuals to make choices that align with their values and goals.
  1. Transition Planning:
    • Supportive care involves creating a personalized transition plan that aligns with individuals’ goals. This may include discussing the timeline for various aspects of transition, such as coming out, hormone therapy, and surgeries.
  1. Postoperative Support:
    • For individuals undergoing gender-affirming surgeries, postoperative support is crucial. This includes monitoring recovery, addressing any post-surgical concerns, and providing resources for aftercare.
  1. Continuity of Care:
    • Supportive care should be continuous and extend beyond specific medical interventions. Ongoing support helps individuals navigate challenges at different stages of their gender-affirming journey.
  1. Education for Healthcare Providers:
    • Ensuring that healthcare providers are knowledgeable about transgender healthcare and provide affirming care is a vital component of supportive care.

Supportive care is a collaborative effort involving healthcare providers, mental health professionals, community organizations, and the individuals seeking care. By addressing the physical, emotional, and social aspects of the gender-affirming journey, supportive care enhances the overall well-being and satisfaction of transgender and gender-diverse individuals.